Author Topic: Stages of Laryngeal Cancer  (Read 292 times)

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Offline bernice

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Stages of Laryngeal Cancer
« on: November 12, 2008, 12:30:13 AM »
After laryngeal cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the larynx or to other parts of the body.

The process used to find out if cancer has spread within the larynx or to other parts of the body is called staging. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease. It is important to know the stage of the disease in order to plan treatment. The results of some of the tests used to diagnose laryngeal cancer are often also used to stage the disease.

There are three ways that cancer spreads in the body.

The three ways that cancer spreads in the body are:

    * Through tissue. Cancer invades the surrounding normal tissue.
    * Through the lymph system. Cancer invades the lymph system and travels through the lymph vessels to other places in the body.
    * Through the blood. Cancer invades the veins and capillaries and travels through the blood to other places in the body.

When cancer cells break away from the primary (original) tumor and travel through the lymph or blood to other places in the body, another (secondary) tumor may form. This process is called metastasis. The secondary (metastatic) tumor is the same type of cancer as the primary tumor. For example, if breast cancer spreads to the bones, the cancer cells in the bones are actually breast cancer cells. The disease is metastatic breast cancer, not bone cancer.

The following stages are used for laryngeal cancer:

Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ)

In stage 0, abnormal cells are found in the lining of the larynx. These abnormal cells may become cancer and spread into nearby normal tissue. Stage 0 is also called carcinoma in situ.

Stage I

In stage I, cancer has formed. Stage I laryngeal cancer depends on where cancer is found in the larynx:

    * Supraglottis: Cancer is in one area of the supraglottis only and the vocal cords can move normally.
    * Glottis: Cancer is in one or both vocal cords and the vocal cords can move normally.
    * Subglottis: Cancer is in the subglottis only.

Stage II

In stage II, cancer is in the larynx only. Stage II laryngeal cancer depends on where cancer is found in the larynx:

    * Supraglottis: Cancer is in more than one area of the supraglottis or surrounding tissues.
    * Glottis: Cancer has spread to the supraglottis and/or the subglottis and/or the vocal cords do not move normally.
    * Subglottis: Cancer has spread to one or both vocal cords, which may not move normally.



Stage III

Stage III laryngeal cancer depends on whether cancer has spread from the supraglottis, glottis, or subglottis.

In stage III cancer of the supraglottis:

    * cancer is in the larynx only and the vocal cords do not move normally, and/or cancer is in tissues next to the larynx; cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters; or
    * cancer is in one area of the supraglottis only and in one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters and the vocal cords can move normally; or
    * cancer is in more than one area of the supraglottis or surrounding tissues and in one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters and/or the vocal cords do not move normally.

In stage III cancer of the glottis:

    * cancer is in the larynx only and the vocal cords do not move normally, and/or cancer is in tissues next to the larynx; cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters; or
    * cancer is in one or both vocal cords and in one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters and the vocal cords can move normally; or
    * cancer has spread to the supraglottis and/or the subglottis and/or the vocal cords do not move normally. The cancer has also spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters.

In stage III cancer of the subglottis:

    * cancer is in the larynx only and the vocal cords do not move normally; cancer may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor and the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters; or
    * cancer is in the subglottis only and in one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters; or
    * cancer has spread to one or both vocal cords, which may not move normally, and to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters.

Stage IV


Stage IV is divided into stage IVA, stage IVB, and stage IVC. Each substage is the same for cancer in the supraglottis, glottis, or subglottis.

    * In stage IVA:
          o cancer has spread through the thyroid cartilage and/or has spread to tissues beyond the larynx such as the neck, trachea, thyroid, or esophagus, and may have spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as the original tumor; the lymph node is smaller than 3 centimeters; or
          o cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck and the lymph nodes are smaller than 6 centimeters; cancer may have spread to tissues beyond the larynx, such as the neck, trachea, thyroid, or esophagus. Vocal cords may not move normally.
    * In stage IVB:
          o cancer has spread to the space in front of the spinal column and surrounds the carotid artery, or has spread to parts of the chest and may have spread to one or more lymph nodes anywhere in the neck (the lymph nodes may be any size); or
          o cancer has spread to a lymph node that is larger than 6 centimeters and may have spread as far as the space in front of the spinal column, around the carotid artery or to parts of the chest. Vocal cords may not move normally.
    * In stage IVC, cancer has spread beyond the larynx to other parts of the body.








source: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/treatment/laryngeal/Patient/page2


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Stages of Laryngeal Cancer
« on: November 12, 2008, 12:30:13 AM »
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